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* သဗၺဒါနံ ဓမၼဒါနံ ဇိနာတိ၊     * သဗၺရသံ ဓမၼရေသာ ဇိနာတိ။

နမတၳဳ ဗုဒၶါနံ နမတၳဳ ေဗာဓိယာ။ နေမာ ဝိမုတၱာနံ၊ နေမာ ဝိမုတၱိယာ။

ဘုရားရွင္တို ့အား ရွိခိုးပါ၏။
ဘုရားရွင္တို ့၏ မဂ္ဥာဏ္ ဖိုလ္ဥာဏ္အား ရွိခိုးပါ၏။
ကိေလသာတို ့မွ လြတ္ေျမာက္ေတာ္မူၾကေသာ ဘုရားရွင္တို ့အား ရွိခိုးပါ၏။
ထိုဘုရားရွင္တို ့၏ ဝိမုတၱိငါးပါးအား ရွိခိုးပါ၏။

ကရုဏာလက္မ်ား ကမ္းလင့္ေပးပါ...

ကရုဏာလက္မ်ား ကမ္းလင့္ေပးပါ...
စား၀တ္ေနေရးအဆင္ေျပေစရန္ ဆန္အိတ္လွဴျခင္း ႏွင့္ အျခားလိုအပ္သည္မ်ား လွဴဒါန္းျခင္းတို႔ျဖင့္ လစဥ္ ေထာက္ပံ့သြားမည္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ သီလရွင္ႏွင့္ ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ား ေအာင္ျမင္စြာ ပညာသင္ၾကားႏိုင္ေရး အတြက္ အနီးကပ္စာျပေပးမည့္ ဆရာမ (၆) ဦးအား တစ္လလွ်င္ (၅) ေသာင္းက်ပ္ျဖင့္ ငွါးရမ္းေပးရန္ စီစဥ္ထားပါသည္။ ပညာေရးအလွဴအား ေစတနာရွင္မ်ားမွလည္း ပါ၀င္ လွဴဒါန္းႏိုင္ပါသည္။ ေကာက္ခံရရွိေသာ အလွဴေငြမ်ားအား ဘဏ္စာအုပ္ထားရွိ၍ ေငြစာရင္းရွင္းတမ္းအား လစဥ္ေဖာ္ျပသြားမည္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ေက်ာင္းသား/ေက်ာင္းသူမ်ား၏ မွတ္တမ္းမ်ားအား အလွဴရွင္မ်ားထံသို႔လည္း ေပးပို႔သြားပါမည္။

ပညာေရးအလွဴေတာ္ ႏႈိးေဆာ္ခ်က္


ရန္ကုန္ျမိဳ႕ အေသာကာရာမ သီလရွင္စာသင္တုိက္မွ နဝမတန္း ေျဖဆုိမည့္ သီလရွင္ ဆရာေလးမ်ားအတြက္ ဆရာ၊ ဆရာမမ်ား လစဥ္ ထားေပးႏုိင္ရန္ ပညာေရးအလွဴရွင္မ်ား လုိအပ္ေနပါသည္။ ေရႊေစတီ ဘုန္းေတာ္ၾကီးသင္ပညာေရးေက်ာင္းတြင္လည္း ဆင္းရဲႏြမ္းပါးသည့္ ၉ တန္းႏွင့္ ၁၀ တန္း ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ား ေက်ာင္းအိပ္ေက်ာင္းစား ေနထုိင္ပညာဆည္းပူးႏုိင္ေရးအတြက္ ကူညီေထာက္ပံ့မည့္ ကုသုိလ္ရွင္မ်ား လုိအပ္လ်က္ ရွိပါသည္။ ေစတနာရွင္ အလွဴရွင္မ်ား အေနျဖင့္ ေထရဝါဒ ဗုဒၶဘာသာ လူငယ္မ်ားအသင္း http://www.mmtheravada.org ဖုန္း
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သီလရွင္ ဆရာေလးမ်ားႏွင့္ ကေလးမ်ား ဇြန္လအမီ ေက်ာင္းတက္ႏုိင္ေရးအတြက္ ကာလဒါန ကုသုိလ္အျဖစ္ သဒၶါတတ္အား နည္းမ်ားမဆုိ လွဴဒါန္းကူညီၾကပါရန္ ႏႈိးေဆာ္အပ္ပါသည္။

၀ိမုတၱိရသ အဖြဲ႔သားမ်ား

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ေနာက္ဆက္တြဲသတင္း.....

ပညာေရးအလွဴေတာ္လႉဒါန္းမည့္အစီအစဥ္

ေထရ၀ါဒဗုဒဘာသာ လူငယ္မ်ား အသင္းမွ ဦးစီး၍ (၂၀၁၁) ခုႏွစ္တြင္ န၀မတန္းသို႔ တက္ေရာက္မည့္ ေက်ာင္းသား (၂၅) ေယာက္ႏွင့္ ေက်ာင္းသူ (၂၅) ေယာက္အား ပညာေရးေထာက္ပံ့မႈျပဳလုပ္ေပးႏိုင္ရန္ စီစဥ္ထားပါသည္။

ျပဳလုပ္မည့္အစီအစဥ္

ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ားအား ေရႊေစတီဘုန္းႀကီးေက်ာင္း (ဆရာေတာ္ ဦးေတဇႏၵိ၊ ခ/(၃) ရက္ကြက္၊ ေရႊေစတီေက်ာင္း၊ မဂၤလာဒုံၿမိဳ႕နယ္) တြင္ထားရွိမည္ျဖစ္ၿပီး ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ားသည္ မိမိတို႔ ဆႏၵအေလ်ာက္ ကိုရင္၀တ္လိုကလည္း ၀တ္ႏိုင္ပါသည္။ ေက်ာင္းသူမ်ားအား အေသာကာရာမ သီလရွင္စာသင္တိုက္ (ဆရာေလးေဒၚသုနႏၵာ (ဖုန္း-၀၉-၈၆၂၈၈၁၁)၊ ၀ါယာလက္ေစ်းမွတ္တိုင္၊ ေရႊႏွင္းဆီရပ္ကြက္၊ မဂၤလာဒံုၿမိဳ႕နယ္) တြင္ထားရွိပါမည္။ အေသာကာရာမေက်ာင္းမွ သီလရွင္မ်ားသာလက္ခံသည္ျဖစ္၍ ေက်ာင္းသူမ်ားမွာ သီလရွင္၀တ္ရပါမည္။ သီလရွင္မ်ားတက္ေရာက္ရမည့္ အ.ထ.က ေက်ာင္းမွာ အေသာကာရာမ ေက်ာင္းမွလက္ရွိ သီလရွင္မ်ား တက္ေရာက္ေနေသာ ေက်ာင္းျဖစ္၍ ပညာသင္ၾကားမႈတြက္ အခက္အခဲ မရွိႏိုင္ပါ။ စာသင္သူမ်ား စား၀တ္ေနေရးအဆင္ေျပေစရန္ ဆန္အိတ္လွဴျခင္း ႏွင့္ အျခားလိုအပ္သည္မ်ား လွဴဒါန္းျခင္းတို႔ျဖင့္ လစဥ္ ေထာက္ပံ့သြားမည္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ သီလရွင္ႏွင့္ ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ား ေအာင္ျမင္စြာ ပညာသင္ၾကားႏိုင္ေရး အတြက္ အနီးကပ္စာျပေပးမည့္ ဆရာမ (၆) ဦးအား တစ္လလွ်င္ (၅) ေသာင္းက်ပ္ျဖင့္ ငွါးရမ္းေပးရန္ စီစဥ္ထားပါသည္။ ပညာေရးအလွဴအား ေစတနာရွင္မ်ားမွလည္း ပါ၀င္ လွဴဒါန္းႏိုင္ပါသည္။ ေကာက္ခံရရွိေသာ အလွဴေငြမ်ားအား ဘဏ္စာအုပ္ထားရွိ၍ ေငြစာရင္းရွင္းတမ္းအား လစဥ္ေဖာ္ျပသြားမည္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ေက်ာင္းသား/ေက်ာင္းသူမ်ား၏ မွတ္တမ္းမ်ားအား အလွဴရွင္မ်ားထံသို႔လည္း ေပးပို႔သြားပါမည္။ အေသးစိတ္ေဆာင္ရြက္မည့္ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားအားလည္း ဆက္လက္ေဖာ္ျပသြားပါမည္။

ေလ်ာက္ထားမည့္ သူမ်ား ျပည့္စုံရမည့္အခ်က္မ်ားမွာ

(က) ေက်ာင္းသူမ်ားမွာ သီလရွင္၀တ္ႏိုင္ရပါမည္။

(ခ ) မိဘမ်ားမွ ေနထိုင္ရန္ခြင့္ ျပဳသူျဖစ္ရပါမည္။

(ဂ ) စာသင္သားမ်ားေနထိုင္မည့္ ေက်ာင္းတြင္း စည္းကမ္းမ်ားကို တိက်စြာလိုက္နာရပါမည္။

(ဃ) ေက်ာင္းထားရန္ အမွန္တကယ္အခက္အခဲ ရွိေနသူျဖစ္ရပါမည္။

အထက္ပါအခ်က္အလက္မ်ားႏွင့္ ျပည့္စုံသူမ်ားသည္ ေထရ၀ါဒဗုဒၶဘာသာလွဴငယ္မ်ား အသင္းသို႔ ဆက္သြယ္ေမးျမန္းႏိုင္ပါသည္။ (http://mmtheravada.org)

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Sunday, June 19, 2011

Hand out paper

Background of Abhidhamma

Theravada and Mahayana (According to them, Theravada is considered to be Hinayana (lesser) till to at present, but Theravada never accepts it. Why? Though it is translated into lesser, actually it means inferior to them. Thus, Theravada considers it as two groups, Theravada and Mahayana.) Theravada tradition spread into southern parts of India, Thailand, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Laos and Cambodia. It is very a few in Europe, USA, Vietnam and Taiwan, but Mahayana to the north. Mahayana can be found in China, Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan and all over the world.

Abhidhamma has in both traditions. All are seven in the same number, not really the same, some are close, and some are a little bit different. Let’s start to learn Theravada Abhidhamma.

We had held six Buddhist councils after Buddha’s demise, three in India, one in Sri Lanka and two in Myanmar. The first one was held three months after Buddha’s Parinibbana , the leading monks were Ashin Mahakassapa, Ashin Upali and Ashin Ananda. The duty was collection, examination and accepting. There was no book so they recited what the Buddha taught together it was known as Sangayana, together recitation. The questioner was Ashin Mahakassapa while Ashin Upali for Vinaya, and Ashin Ananda for Sutta and Abhidhamma of answers. Then they classified into three Pitaka (three baskets) Pitaka has another meanings, learning and subject for learning. But easy way translation is basket. Vinaya is used for monks and nuns, Sutta for all. Abhidhamma is special subject.

The second one was held hundred years after Buddha’s Parinibbana. It was held in Vesali seven hundred Arahant monks participated for this council. It was the same as in the first council. It was disputed a little bit between the monks in concerning with Vinaya.

The third council was held two hundred and thirty years after Buddha’s Parinibbana. It was held in Pataliputta it was not so far from Vesali in King Asoka era. And the king sent to different places for missionary work. One team went to Sri Lanka for spreading Buddha’s message. King’s son and daughter were leading the team.

At the end of BC, (the beginning of AD) in Sri Lanka, there was unrest of nation due to battle of robbery for twelve years. The monks faced so difficult conditions. There were short age of foods so some moved to India but some remained in the country. They couldn’t effort so much, but they maintained the memorizing of what the Buddha taught near by the river which could give the sands for comfortable of their livings. After twelve years, the war was over and some monks came back from India to Sri Lanka. They checked the teachings whether it was true or not. “Friends, you had easy life in India side. You could keep tipitaka correctly. We did the same but we had a lot of sufferings during this hard time. It may affect the teachings of Buddha. So let’s check each.” It was nothing mistake fortunately and the monks felt happily. Thinking that somehow later period, the generations wouldn’t have keep properly; they tried it keeping the Buddha’s teachings on palm leaves in the first century A.D. It was generally accepted as the fourth Buddhist council. But is not recorded in pali tipitaka.

The fifth and the six Buddhist councils were held in Mandalay and Yangon, in Myanmar. The fifth council did well keeping the teachings on marble slabs (729) and the six also did the same printing the teachings of the Buddha in standard way. The teachings were printed in 40 books.

  1. What’s Abhidhamma?

Abhidhamma is an extraordinary subject with special qualities. It is combination of the two words Abhi+Dhamma Abhi has two meanings extraordinary and noble. Dhamma means teachings. How it is extraordinary and noble? Its way of teachings is extraordinary. Method of treatment is expanded than any other two. Sayadaw U Thetthila explains “Abhidhamma Abhidhamma is highly prized by the profound students of Buddhist philosophy, but to the average student it seems to be dull and meaningless. This it because it is so extremely subtle in its anslysis and technical in its trement. That is very difficult to understand without the guidance of an able teacher. That is probably why the Abhidhamma is not so popular as the other two pitakas among western Buddhists” (The Path of the Buddha, p, 70) Abhidhamma can be called as philosophy, psychology and also it is partly a kind of ethics.

2.What’s a difference between the Vinaya, Sutta and abhidhamma?

Vinaya is law or discipline of Buddhist monks and nuns but Abhidhamma is not. Sutta is general knowledge for particular assumption. It depends how a person’s temperament, habit, background and situation etc. A Sutta can apply for a person or many. The same Sutta is not for all. In other way, in the Sutta we can see the five aggregate in brief. It covers within in a page (Sanyutta), but in Abhidhamma it is in detail information covering with 80 pages (Vibhanga). Abhidhamma never approaches to a person’s temperament. Sutta mentions a conventional truth only but Abhidhamma teaches us a conventional truth as well as ultimate truth. Abhidhamma is just like lab language H2o etc, for Sutta it is water. Abhidhamma teaches us sodium Sutta mentions it as a salt. When we study mind in Abhidhamma we find in very detail information about it. Psychology does not go detail like Abhidhamma. The mind doesn’t work as single it works together with mental states simultaneously. Each and every mental state has their character, function, cause, nearest cause. We can see it in chapter two. Physical state is also 28, how it comes, why it is 28. When it starts and ends. It we can study in chapter six. It is stated in Milindapaahna, King said it is wonderful it is. This is mind and this is mental state, it is extremely difficult to differentiate from each, it would be easier to differentiate the ocean water it is water coming from Ganga River, Yamuna River, etc.

3.It’s essential to know Abhidhamma?

How to say it? It may differ from one to another. Some may say Yes, but some No. It depends who you are. If you are an educated one your answer is “Yes”, but “No” for uneducated. In this time, especially for the west people, they say no need of Abhidhamma we can read the books without it. If you are really want to know the teachings of Buddha through Sutta, without Abhidhamma subject your understanding of Buddha’s teachings cannot be systematically. Sometime it may derail your understanding. It is true for some Sutta you can understand without it. But some Sutta’s meaning is hard to understand unless your knowledge is away from Abhidhamma subject. Easy example to know is not to cultivate the unwholesome, but to cultivate the wholesome. Then, you keep the purification of your mind. These three are the teachings of all the Buddha. Here what’s unwholesome (akusala) and wholesome (kusala) and how many things are they? If you don’t have Abhidhamma knowledge you cannot answer it clearly. Then let’s consider in a deep way, everyone have meal. While you having your meal, the unwholesome can rise in your mind even you are doing your own meal, unless you train your mind in proper way. You may have question why it can happen like that I don’t go anything wrong. I don’t kill anyone and steal anybody’s belongings. Even then you can cultivate unwholesome if you are too greedy onto the food. But if you live in accordance with the teachings of Buddha in your daily life you can avoid from the unwholesome. It is how to cultivate the unwholesome. Therefore some Sutta can be understood with the reference of Abhidhamma subject. Abhidhamma is essential if you are real enthusiastic to know the Buddha’s teachings.

4.It’s Abhidhamma, easy or difficult subject?

Easy or difficult is depended on the techniques or methods. Even it may be difficult there would be a way. You walk in this way you can reach the goal. If it is so difficult none can understand Abhidhamma but there are many of Abhidhmma students. Most of them know Abhidhmma well. You must have time for Abhidhamma which is seven in numbers.

1. Dhammasangani 2. Vibhanga. 3. Dhatukatha. 4. Puggalapannatti 5. Kathavatthu 6. Yamaka and, 7 Patthana. These seven are so voluminous. Without studying of Abhiddhamma Sangaha, you can hardly understand the entire text. Even these seven Abhidhamma are neither too long nor too short. So we just begin to learn it. The more you study it you know more and more the knowledge of Abhidhmma. But you used to be practice. To meet me again in this class in the next week, you should remind the subject for a few minutes. Pl don’t do it without study of subject, it will make you displeasure.

5.Abhidhamma in Mynamar and the west

Abhiddhammattha Sangaha (A Mnual of Abhidhamma). It has another name Letthan Atthakatha (little finger commentary).It has three different translations in English one is A Compendium of Philosophy. The author was from Myanmar. The next A Manual of Abhidhamma by Ashin Narada who was from Sri Lanka. The last translation is from India author. His name is G. Katshus. Abhidhamma studies in Myanmar are the best among Theravada countries. Almost the educated monks in Myanmar understand well. But the monks in other Theravada countries know Abhiddhamma very rarely. Why? It is compulsory subject for all in Myanmar. From very beginning day of novice life to the educated one, they must learn Abhidhamma. The other reason is also very strong habit to know Abhidhamma that we know as night subject. At night without the light, all have to recite without looking the book what everyone has learned in day time. If mistake happens to them the teacher corrects it. Today in Thai Land, they examine how they should do to recover Abhidhamma subject.

Today in the west, so called scholars may think that Abhidhamma is not so useful due to lack of their Abhidhamma knowledge. They like to say it is no original subject and it is included in Sutta. Any how it can be sure that without Abhidhamma knowledge there wouldn’t be understanding of the teachings of Buddha accurately. In the west, it is a mistake they don’t have good books for understanding of Abhidhamma for their interesting. Good guide is also essential for learning. Modern technology will help them for more information and understanding Abhidhamma. It will gain gradually in the west.

6. Abhidhamma and vipassana (meditation)

Where is Abhidhhamma? Even we study Abhidhamma in the book, in reality; we can find it in ourselves. If you are acquainted with Vipassana learning Abhidhammma is helpful. In return, you start to learn Abhidhamma will help you Vipassana if you go hand to hand. The book knowledge (somewhat is needed) is not work properly unless you go for vipassana. We call it theory and join it too practically. It is deep and depth subject. We feel happy to be discussion with students. We do hope for the better study of Abidhamma in the future.

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ယခုအခါ ကမၻာတလႊားတြင္ရွိေနၾကေသာ ဓမၼဘေလာ့ဂ္ဂါမ်ားသည္ ေန ့စဥ္ႏွင့္ အမွ် အင္တာနက္ စာမ်က္ႏွာမ်ား ေပၚတြင္ ဓမၼႏွင့္သက္ဆိုင္ေသာ အေၾကာင္းအရာ အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးကို ပို ့စ္မ်ားေရးတင္လ်က္ ရွိေနၾကပါသည္။

ဘေလာ့ဂ္ဂါမ်ားမွ မိမိတို ့၏ကိုယ္ပိုင္ စာမ်က္ႏွာမ်ားမွတဆင့္ ေရးတင္ေနၾကသျဖင့္ ဖတ္ရႈေလ့လာသူမ်ားအတြက္ ေနရာမ်ားစြာသို ့ သြားေရာက္ ဖတ္ရႈေနၾကရပါသည္။

ထို ့ေၾကာင့္ စာဖတ္သူမ်ား အခ်ိန္ကုန္သက္သာေစရန္ႏွင့္ မိမိတို ့ ဖတ္ရႈလိုရာကို လြယ္လင့္တကူ ရွာေဖြနိဳင္ရန္ ေန ့စဥ္ေရးသား ေနၾကေသာ အေၾကာင္းအရာမ်ားကို တေနရာတည္းတြင္ စုစည္းေပးလိုေသာ ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္ျဖင့္ ဤဘေလာ့ဂ္ကို စီစဥ္လိုက္ျခင္းျဖစ္ပါသည္။

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